"Science" means many different things to many people. Science is an action, a set of methods for hypothesis testing; science is a result, a way of illuminating the world around us. By "science," I mean the combination of the practice and use of organized, institutional science. We typically think of science as something that happens in the laboratory. Maybe a spark of discovery leads to a new cancer-fighting drug. But we now know that science happens all around us. Citizens can collect air samples from their neighborhood and test the level of toxins. "Basic" research discoveries don't always lead to cures for devastating diseases. That's why I'm calling this post "A new science for decision-making."
This summer I'm working with Michigan State University Extension on a project about climate change and agriculture. Our guiding idea is of communicating climate change science and policy as not just a top-down, one-way street, but as a participatory process for scientists, policymakers, and stakeholders (farmers and anyone involved and affected by climate change). During my first year of graduate school at Arizona State University, I discovered that other people actually write about this! Thus, I am collecting resources that I hope you will find interesting and helpful. I have started from the perspective of Science and Technology Studies (STS, also related to the broader “social studies of science”). STS tends to take a critical look at the scientific processes of research and development and science and technology policy. The intended audience of my resource is interdisciplinary academics and science policy practitioners who are interested in the broader theoretical and practical relevance of their work. Special note: the articles are not in order of author, but rather the order in which I think they should be read for each set. Also, I've included a glossary of words that are critical concepts but may be unfamiliar to most people. Work in progress, May 2011. Comments appreciated!
Pielke, Roger, Jr. (2007). The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available at Amazon.com
- This short book is an excellent guide to some of the principles of science policy, and particularly the role of scientists in political debates. If you’re looking to get started in learning about science policy and why things like the climate change debate have gotten so complex and confusing, this is the place to start. Also check out Roger's blog!
Kunseler, Eva (2007). “Towards a new paradigm of science in scientific policy advising.” http://www.nusap.net/downloads/KunselerEssay2007.pdf
- This short essay gives a good overview of the distinction between “normal” and “post-normal” science. Kunseler uses the framework of a “paradigm shift” which is the change from one set of widely accepted views about science to another. As referenced, Funtowicz and Ravetz (1993) are best known for introducing “post-normal” science, where they provide a framework for a new type of science needed for today’s uncertain and complex environmental problems. Like Jasanoff (next article), they call for more dialogue with non-scientific stakeholder communities.
Jasanoff, Sheila (2003). “Technologies of Humility: Citizen Participation in Governing Science.” Miverva 41. http://sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/students/envs_5100/jasanoff2003.pdf
- This article is a great starting point for some of the main issues that confront contemporary science policy and public participation in these political decisions. Jasanoff is a leading STS scholar and often focuses how science is used in federal regulatory decisions. Her proposed “technologies of humility” turn traditional scientific norms on their head.
Sarewitz, Daniel (2000). “Science and Environmental Policy: An Excess of Objectivity.” http://www.cspo.org/products/articles/excess.objectivity.html
- Sarewitz is another well-known science policy scholar. This book chapter is an insightful commentary on how science can actually impede the political process. Political debates focus on disputable and uncertain facts while ignoring underlying value conflicts in highly politicized environmental issues. The “excess of objectivity” refers to the incompatibility of multiple fields of science, and how while each field claims objectivity, they drive controversy and muddy the political waters.
- See also “How science makes environmental controversies worse.” By Daniel Sarewitz, 2004. http://www.cspo.org/_old_ourlibrary/documents/environ_controv.pdf
McNie, Elizabeth. (2007). “Reconciling the supply of scientific information with user demands: An analysis of the problem and review of the literature.” Environmental Science & Policy 10. http://sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/admin/publication_files/resource-2486-2007.03.pdf
- This final paper is a great tie-in between this section and the next (coming soon!). McNie takes a case-based, fairly non-theoretical approach to the “problem of linking science to decision-making” (p. 18). She outlines models of public participation in shaping science for decision-making.
Extended peer community/review: the proposal that scientific practice should be reviewed by not just scientists, but stakeholders. For example, breast cancer patients and activists would be involved in selecting what research projects to fund.
Linear model: the idea that “basic research” leads to fundamental breakthroughs that can be applied for economic growth. Basic research=lab/bench research, supposedly removed from society. Applied research=scientific discoveries applied to societal problems or for technology. Many science policy scholars now question this model, since many “discoveries” come from non-science, and science and technology are involved in a complex and iterative relationship. See Donald Stokes' Pastuer's Quadrant.
Mertonian ideal: science characterized by “universalism, communism, disinterestedness, and organized skepticism (Merton, 1973)” (McNie, 2007, p. 23)
Post-normal/"Mode 2" science: the evolution of scientific practice (or knowledge production) in a world of highly complex, uncertain, and interdisciplinary problems.
Social contract of science: the implicit agreement between scientists and the government/public that science should be funded based on peer review/merit, and without intervention. Based upon the “linear model” promoted by Vannevar Bush.
Well-ordered science: a proposal for aligning scientific research goals with societal goals. Based on Philip Kitcher’s argument in Science, Truth, and Democracy.